Pharmacognostical Evaluation of an Extra-pharmacopoeial Drug of Ayurveda - Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) Wall.
Introduction: Anisochilus carnosus (L.f.) Wall., locally known as Arikal tumbe by traditional practitioners of Udupi, is an aromatic herb of Lamiaceae. Leaves and aerials parts are used in medicine by traditional practitioners in the treatment of gastric ulcers and stomach ache. Methods: Mature whole plant of A. carnosus (L.f.) Wall. after flowering and fruiting was collected from Udupi District and authenticated. Macro-microscopic, physicochemical standards, HPTLC and secondary metabolites screening were recorded scientifically. Results: The pharmacognostic study of leaf has shown single layer upper epidermis with cuticle cyst walls, covering of trichomes which are uniserate with blunt apex. Anatomical features of Stem of A. carnosus exhibited trichomes, which were attached to epidermis, beneath these 2 or 3 layers compactly arranged collenchymas was present. In transverse section root showed outer cork which was thick wall brown in colour followed by cortex 5-6 layers. Powder microscopy characteristics showed the presence of starch in parenchyma region. Physicochemical standards and HPTLC represent the standard out prints of the drug. Preliminary Phytochemical study reveals it contain it Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Steroids, Tannins, Phenol, Carboxylic acid and Quinone. Conclusion: Pharmacognostical study carried out on A. carnosus, showed quality standards of the drug, with respect to its macro-microscopy, physico-chemical standards and HPTLC.